BORN TODAY: in Santa Caterina di Valfurva – Achille Compagnoni, Italian mountaineer and skier.
Siege Warfare: In the West, German forces lay siege to the City of Antwerp, and in the East to the fortress of Osovets in the Russian Empire (now in North East Poland).
South West Africa: At the Battle of Sandfontein a South African/ British force of around 3000 men and 4000 horse surrender to a smaller but heavier armed unit of Germans from German South West Africa.
The Dardanelles: After a skirmish between a Turkish torpedo boat (partly manned by German sailors) and British ships patrolling the Aegean outside the straits, the German commander of the Turkish forts controlling the straits orders the straits to be closed. Technically, Turkey is not yet at war, but this action has a major impact on Russia, who will now be unable to earn foreign currency by exporting her wheat harvest in the winter months when her northern ports are ice-bound. [Roger Ford “Eden to Armageddon, World War 1 in the Middle East”].