10th June 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lachine, Quebec, Canada – Saul Bellow, Pulitzer and Nobel winner.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Bellow

War!

Africa: At the second battle of Garua, British and French troops defeat a defending force to take control of the German colony of Kamerun.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Garua

 

29th April, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: Three knights and two aces:

~ In Haynau in eastern Germany (now Chojnów in western Poland) – Hans Karl Bunzel, Oberleutnant and Knights Cross of the Iron Cross.

~ In Rehhof in East Prussia (now Ryjewo in northern Poland) – Paul Brandt, Luftwaffe Ace and Knights Cross of the Iron Cross.

~ In Altenburg, in the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (now part of Thuringia in Germany) – Heinrich-Wilhelm Ahnert, Luftwaffe Ace and Knights Cross of the Iron Cross.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Brandt_(pilot)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Bunzel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich-Wilhelm_Ahnert

War!

War from the air: Just before midnight the German Zeppelin LZ.38 crosses the Suffolk coast of eastern England, bombing the towns of Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds during the early of hours of April 30th.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/29th30th-april/4585768340

West Africa: From Kamerun a German force raids the town of Gurin just over the border in British Nigeria.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gurin

26th October 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Los Angeles – Uncle Fester.

http://www.historyorb.com/people/jackie-coogan

War!

In Africa: in German Kamerun (now independent Cameroon), British and French forces successfully eject the German garrison from the town of Edea in the “first battle of Edea”.

wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Edea

Crime and punishment: In Sarajevo, the group who plotted successfully to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28th June are found guilty. Those over the age of 20 are sentenced to death, and the younger perpetrators, including the actual assassin, Gavrilo Princip, are given twenty year sentences. [Burg and Purcell]

 Peace

Fashion: In London, the Guardian newspaper reports on the impact of the war on high fashion:

“One is decidedly struck with the tendency to adopt – or rather adapt – several military styles of coats and capes. The cavalier cape of the summer has become more ample and closely fitting round the throat, while the loose military coat, slightly double-breasted and buttoning close to the neck, with a band collar or edging of narrow fur, is both extremely becoming and useful. These are usually made of a heavy face-cloth or velour, and must, of course, be lined with a silk of contrasting colour. An adaptation of the Russian soldier coat is another favourite. This is cut on somewhat straighter lines than the former and has a sash or girdle of heavy cord and tassel round the waist, tied loosely to the front or side.” [The Guardian, 26th October 1914].

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2013/oct/23/first-world-war-military-fashion-1914

Leisure: In New Zealand, farmer George is studying the geology of the USA in his free time.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/4800

7th October 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Faizabad, in British India – Akhtari Bai Faizabadi, also known as Begum Akhtar, classical Indian vocalist.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Begum_Akhtar

War!

In Africa: At the Battle of Jabassi in German Kamerun, British forces under the command of Brigadier General Edmund Howard Gorges sail up the River Wuri with 4 field guns. Their first assault on the German entrenchments is repelled by intense machine gun fire. Four Europeans are killed. It is not clear whether the Nigerian casualties in the British contingent were counted.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jabassi

Propaganda: an English clergyman informs the Manchester Geographical Society “You will hear only one-hundredth part of the actual atrocities this war has produced. The civilized world could not stand the truth. There are, up and down England to-day, scores – I am under-stating the number – of Belgian girls who have had their hands cut off.”  Despite an offer from a press baron of 200 British pounds for an authentic photograph of a mutiliated civilian, no proof is ever forthcoming.

http://www.worldwar1postcards.com/4-mutilated-children.php

 

6th September 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: In Accra on the Gold Coast (now Ghana) – Jacob Hackenburg Griffiths-Randolph, Ghanaian Commissioner of Income Tax; political exile; Speaker of Parliament of Ghana; and father-in-law of Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, the contemporary Ghanaian politician and contender for the 2016 Presidential election.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Hackenburg_Griffiths-Randolph

War!

Western Front: German, French and British troops clash on the first day of the Battle of the Marne. In the stuff of legends, and at a crucial stage on this first day, the Parisian authorities send an additional 6000 troops who are de-training in Paris back to the front in Parisian taxis.

[Tuchman – the Guns of August]

West Africa: At the Battle of Nsanakong in Kamerun, German forces successfully expel a British invasion force, pushing it back into Nigeria one week after the original incursion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Nsanakong

Eastern Front: Writing from the small spa resort of Trenčianske Teplice (now in in Western Slovakia) Žiga, a Hungarian or Slovenian soldier writes to his wife:

“I wrote you a letter in the morning, but I don’t know if you’ll get it. I received your postcard, but not a closed letter. After 24 hours of travelling we arrived to Trenčianske Teplice at noon. We’ll have lunch here and then move on. Don’t write until I send you an address. I won’t receive your letters. Staying yours faithful husband,

Žiga.

They just brought 2000 Russians; I have seen a Russian soldier”

http://www.pokarh-mb.si/en/s/82/hrepenenje-izza-okopov-6-pismo.html

6th August 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Tipperary, Ireland – George Moulson, professional footballer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Moulson

War!

Serbia declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

In Belgium, the German Zeppelin airship L-Z drops thirteen bombs on the City of Liege, killing 9 people.

The Battle of the Frontiers opens when German troops cross from Luxembourg into France and take the town of Longwy.

In Britain, 80,000 troops, 30,000 horses and over 315 field guns are assembling on the south coast for the British Expeditionary Force crossing of the Channel / La Manche.

In West Africa: In Togoland and Cameroon, French forces seize German territory and outposts.

(sources: Almanac of World War 1; The Guns of August)

Shipping News: The SS Rohilla, (“named after Afghan tribes who had sought refuge in India during the 18th Century. They were annihilated by the Nawab of Oudh, with the unauthorised help of British troops”), is requisitioned as a hospital ship and renamed the HMHS Rohiila.

http://www.titanicandco.com/rohilla.html

Peace…

Thirty-one year old diarist Franz Kafka is having a bad day:“I am an empty vessel… Full of lies, hate and envy. Full of incompetence, stupidity, thickheadedness. Full of laziness, weakness and helplessness.”

http://kafkaesque-world.tumblr.com/page/32

10th May 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Chicago, Illinois – Carl Hammer, computer promoter who “probably spoke at more professional meetings and delivered more lectures than any member of his generation. He was fellow of the IEEE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York Academy of Science, and the World Organization of General Systems and Cybernetics. He received distinguished service awards from ACM and the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, the Chester Morrill Memorial Award from Association for Systems Management, and was named the 1973 Man of the Year by the Data Processing Management Association”. [www.computer.org]

http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/an/2006/02/man2006020081.html

~ in the village of Khaira-Chhota in Patiala, in British India – Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya, “freedom fighter, parliamentarian and popular leader of farmers in Rajasthan” and “radical thinker” [Wikipedia]

http://www.jatland.com/home/Kumbha_Ram_Arya

~ at Dorridge, in Warwickshire, England –   John Basil Goodey, Ph.D, “the leading British authority for the identification and classification of plant and soil nematodes… [who] assisted in a complete course  [on nematology] at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 1964 under the aegis of the Rockefeller Foundation”.

http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/nguyen/FLNEM/HISTORY/basilgoodey.htm

World Affairs:

~ in the French “Protectorate” of Morocco, a french foreign legion force under General Baumgarten successfully takes and enters the Berber stronghold of Taza, between the RIf and Middle-Atlas mountain ranges.

http://www.gettyimages.in/detail/nieuwsfoto’s/general-baumgarten-and-his-army-invading-taza-morocco-on-nieuwsfotos/144845287

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taza

~ In German governed Cameroon, Rudolf Douala Manga Bell and Ngoso Din are arrested during a mutiny against German rule and accused of high treason. They will be tried on 7th August, at a time of high tension after European war has been declared, and hanged on August 8th.

http://afrolegends.com/2013/11/25/rudolf-douala-manga-bell/

Society and Culture: V.I. Lenin publishes “Corrupting the Workers with Refined Nationalism” in Pravda.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/may/10.htm