13th November 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Fulham, London – Leonard Appelbee, painter.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/leonard-appelbee-655

War!

~ At Khenifra in the Atlas Mountains, in the French “Protectorate” of Morocco around 5000 tribesmen from the Zayanes confederation (of Berber tribes) clash with French colonial forces at the Battle of El Herri. Over 800 men die, around 75% from the French forces. The Zayan war will continue until 1921.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_El_Herri

~ In Ploegsteert Wood in Flanders, Belgium (“Plugstreet”), it rains hard all day. The mud is 3feet deep, and movement is “difficult”.

http://somersetremembers.wordpress.com/tag/december-1914/

~ The New York Times reports that the Turkish Armenians are now “in armed revolt” and “see day of deliverance” (ie from Turkish rule) by being “ready to join Russian invaders”.

http://www.tc-america.org/files/news/pdf/turkisharmeniansinarmedrevolt.pdf

Peace

In Dublin, businessman Martin Fitzgerald is charged with driving at speeds in excess of 30 miles per hour. He describes the charge as ‘absurd’, but is convicted of driving ‘at a speed dangerous to the public’, and fined 40 shillings.

http://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/articles/businessman-fined-for-exceeding-30-miles-per-hour

 

 

 

26th July 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: In Llanelli, Wales, to Lithuanian parents – Isaac Cohen, Chief Rabbi of Ireland from 1956 to 1979.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Cohen

World Affairs: The British Government, distracted until yesterday with its Irish question, and only just beginning to focus on the European situation, attempts to organize a political conference among the major European powers to resolve the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. France and Italy agree to participate. Russia then agrees, but Germany refuses.

Meanwhile Russia begins “pre-mobilisation” measures along its borders with Austria-Hungary, part of its “period preparatory to war”, including cancelling leave for reservists and clearing frontier railway lines.

The French also cancel all military leave and order most of their troops back from Morocco.

Tiny Montenegro mobilizes!

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Crisis

Ireland: In the “Howth gun running incident” Irish Nationalists smuggle a consignment of old rifles from the Franco-Prussian War (1870) into the country. They will eventually see service in the Easter Rising in 1916.

When the British authorities attempt to intervene events rapidly turn bloody, resulting in the infamous “Massacre of Bachelor’s Walk”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howth_gun-running

http://www.politics.ie/forum/history/213567-bachelors-walk-forgotten-massacre-july-26-1914-a.html

10th May 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Chicago, Illinois – Carl Hammer, computer promoter who “probably spoke at more professional meetings and delivered more lectures than any member of his generation. He was fellow of the IEEE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York Academy of Science, and the World Organization of General Systems and Cybernetics. He received distinguished service awards from ACM and the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, the Chester Morrill Memorial Award from Association for Systems Management, and was named the 1973 Man of the Year by the Data Processing Management Association”. [www.computer.org]

http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/an/2006/02/man2006020081.html

~ in the village of Khaira-Chhota in Patiala, in British India – Chaudhary Kumbharam Arya, “freedom fighter, parliamentarian and popular leader of farmers in Rajasthan” and “radical thinker” [Wikipedia]

http://www.jatland.com/home/Kumbha_Ram_Arya

~ at Dorridge, in Warwickshire, England –   John Basil Goodey, Ph.D, “the leading British authority for the identification and classification of plant and soil nematodes… [who] assisted in a complete course  [on nematology] at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 1964 under the aegis of the Rockefeller Foundation”.

http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/nguyen/FLNEM/HISTORY/basilgoodey.htm

World Affairs:

~ in the French “Protectorate” of Morocco, a french foreign legion force under General Baumgarten successfully takes and enters the Berber stronghold of Taza, between the RIf and Middle-Atlas mountain ranges.

http://www.gettyimages.in/detail/nieuwsfoto’s/general-baumgarten-and-his-army-invading-taza-morocco-on-nieuwsfotos/144845287

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taza

~ In German governed Cameroon, Rudolf Douala Manga Bell and Ngoso Din are arrested during a mutiny against German rule and accused of high treason. They will be tried on 7th August, at a time of high tension after European war has been declared, and hanged on August 8th.

http://afrolegends.com/2013/11/25/rudolf-douala-manga-bell/

Society and Culture: V.I. Lenin publishes “Corrupting the Workers with Refined Nationalism” in Pravda.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/may/10.htm

19th April 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY, probably in Bombay (now Mumbai) – Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, 7th Baronet of Bombay, a title first bestowed (on the first Baronet, also Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy) in 1857, and then to each of the intermediate five – all known as Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy. in 1915 the Imperial Legislative Council (the legislature for India during the British Raj) passed the Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Baronetcy Act to ensure that all successors will take this name and no other. The 7th Baronet (Sir James Jejeebhoy) died in 2006 and the eight Baronet (you guessed it) is now 55 years old. His heir apparent is Jehangir Jejeebhoy. There is no indication that the Jejeebhoys are related to Jehangir Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney (1853-1934), another famous member of the Bombay Parsi community, who makes an appearance here solely on the basis of his splendid name.

World Affairs: Montenegro refuses to participate in an armistice which is signed between Bulgaria/ Serbia and Turkey.

Society, Empire and Culture: in the Spanish zone (protectorate) of Morocco, Mulay al-Mahdi bin Isma’il bin Muhammad is appointed as “Jalifato” (Sultan’s representative).

Sport: At London’s Crystal Palace, Aston Villa beat Sunderland 1-0 in the 42nd FA Cup Final.

Accidents: In Paris, Isadora Duncan’s two children and their nanny drown after the car they are in plunges into the River Seine. After stalling the engine, the driver forgets to apply the handbrake before hand-cranking the engine.

25th January 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY – Huang Hua, Foreign Minister of China from 1976-1982, who died in 2010, aged 97.

Society and culture: the USA introduces a literacy test for all incoming immigrants.

The Picture House cinema opens in Oxford Street, London, with 601 seats and standing room for another 63, and a ballroom in the basement.

Arms Race:

John Brown and company in Clydesdale (Scotland) launch HMS Ambuscade, a Royal Navy Destroyer. She will be sold for scrap after just eight years.

The Royal Australian Navy “lays down” HMAS Brisbane which will launch in December 1916 and see 20 years intermittent service before being sold for scrap in 1936. Also (on the same day) HMAS Torrens and HMAS Huon, which will be sunk by gunfire for target practice by the Australian Navy in 1930 and 1931 respectively. All three vessels (and various other Australian ships) will briefly see action in the Mediterranean during 1917.

The Illustrated London News publishes a fascinating picture of H.G.Wells and two friends (three middle aged gentlemen) playing “war games” in an english drawing room.

Colonial unrest: In Morocco, French forces based in Mogador successfully take control of the Kasbah of dar Aflous to improve the grip of the “French Protectorate”.

10th January 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY – Gustav Husak in Pozsonyhidegkút, Austria-Hungary (now Dúbravka, Slovakia). Czechoslovakian  communist leader from 1971 to 1987, who oversaw the “normalisation” after the Prague Spring (1968).

First Balkan War:

Romania demands that Bulgaria relinquishes all of its territory between Silistria and the Black Sea.

Anti-colonial stirrings: Moroccan rebels attack a  Mauritanian detachment of the French camel cavalry.