8th July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lviv (Lwów”, “Lvov”, or “Lemberg”, depending on your linguistic roots) – the Army of the Bug, known to its friends as the “Armeeoberkommando Bug”.



On the British Home Front:

~ At Aldershot, Lance Corporal Benjamin Burnley, a collier from  Pontefract, overstays his authorised leave by 9 hours and 35 minutes, for which he is severely reprimanded and forfeits a day’s pay.


~ In the personal column of the London “Times”, Ethel M shames Jack F.G:

“Jack F.G. If you are not in khaki by the 20th I shall cut you dead. Ethel M.”.


22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.


DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.



Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.


Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.


20th June 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamburg – SM UC-6, a German  minelayer submarine.  In just over two years she will sink over 50 ships before herself being destroyed in September 1917.



Eastern Front: At the Battle of Lemberg, German & Austro-Hungarian forces lauch an attack to re-take the city and the Austrian fortress lost to the Russians in 1914 (later Lwów in Poland, now Lviv in Ukraine).


Across Empires: in St John’s on the Island of St. Pierre et Miquelon ( a vestige of the colony of New France off the Atlantic coast of Canada) 242 Canadian recruits of “F” company embark on HM Troopship Calgarian, bound for Liverpool and the war in Europe, including Inuit and Métis volunteers from Labrador.


8th June 1915 (Tuesday)


~ In Jorhat in the British Raj (now in Assam in India) – Sonaram Chutia – fighter against casteism.


~ in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, in British Ireland (now part of Northern Ireland) – Sean McCaughey, metal worker, gaelic teacher and fighter against the British in Ireland.


~ In Lwow (caught at the time between Russian and Austrian forces, later in Poland, and now in Western Ukraine) – Witold Lanowski,  fighter pilot against the Nazis in the Polish, British and US air forces.


2nd June 1915 (Wednesday)


~  in Kempen in Posen, in Prussia (now Kępno in Poland) – Fritz Gromotka, German Luftwaffe Ace.

~ in Saratoga, Minnesota – Ramon Felipe San Juan Mario Silvio Enrico Smith Heathcourt-Brace Sierra y Alvarez-del Rey y de los Verdes, aka Lester del Rey, writer of science fiction and fantasy and founder of Del Rey books.

~ In Wandsworth, London – William Lionel Murton, English-Canadian character actor.

~ in Quetta in the British Raj (now in Pakistan) – Sir David Clive Crosbie Trench GCMG MC DL, British Army Officer and 24th Governor of Hong Kong.





10th May 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE, TD, english businessman who married Margaret Doris Kempson, a businessman’s daughter, in 1941, and later (1951) Margaret Hilda Roberts, a grocer’s daughter and chemist he had met at a social function of the Paint Trades Ferderation in 1949. Already a millionaire, he finances his new bride’s training as a barrister, and buys a house in Chelsea. [Wikipedia]. The rest, as they say, is history…


Peace:   In Washington, President Wilson, responding to journalists after the sinking of the Lusitania with its American passngers, sets out the US position [quoted in Burg & Purcell]:

“Americans must have a consciousness different from the consiciousness of every other nation in the world. The example of America must be the example not merely of peace because peace is the healing and elevating influence of the world and strife is not… There is such a thing as a nation  being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right”.


Eastern Front: In the decisive battle of Gorlice-Tarnow in Austria-Hungary (now in Poland) the Russian Third Army collapses, with the Austrians and Germans having captured 140,000 men and 100 guns. The Austrians force their way across the river San at Sanok, and begin to advance towards the fortress of Przemysl.


War from the air: At 45 Ashburnham road, Southend, on England’s south east coast, Mr and Mrs May escape with their baby after a German Zeppelin drops a bomb into their back bedroom. Sixty year old Mrs Whitwell, at 120 North Road, is less fortunate.


4th May 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Gorzyce in Eastern Prussia (now part of Western Poland) – Florian Marciniak, Polish scoutmaster murdered by the gestapo in 1944, aged 28.



Crime and punishment: 14780 Acting Corporal Chisholm, of the 20th Fortress Company British Royal Engineers, serving on the Western Front, “feloniously, wilfully and of malice aforethought, kill[s] and murder[s] No. 348 Lance-Corporal Robert Lewis, 1st Glamorgan (Fortress) Company, Royal Engineers’, a crime for which he is court-martialled on 10th May and hanged on the 17th May at 6.10AM.