21st August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Anna Rachel Rastén, the Danish singer better known as Raquel Rastenni.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raquel_Rastenni

MODERN AGRICULTURE: In California, the Pacific Rural Press reports on a Texan farmer’s recent success in breeding “Cattelo”, a hybrid cattle and buffalo stock.

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=PRP19150821.2.30#

War!

Gallipoli: In what will prove to be the last major offensive in the Gallipoli campaign, a force of New Zealand, Ghurka and (later) Australian troops launches the attack on “Hill 60”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hill_60_(Gallipoli)

Armenian expulsions: Harrowing stories continue to emerge about the forced mass expulsion of Armenians through and out of Anatolia.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=21st+august+1915+-gallipoli&source=bl&ots=GIsbap3vY7&sig=H-UY5YAYnsVE2LuaPaZWWKJoyWc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwADgKahUKEwi1oamG37XHAhUBz3IKHbpHD-0#v=onepage&q=21st%20august%201915%20-gallipoli&f=false

 

15th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Purwokerto on the Island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia ) – her mother a descendent of the Maharaja of Java,  of Hindu, Polish, German and French extraction, her father a Danish engineer – Nini Arlette Thielade, ballet dancer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nini_Theilade

13th June 1915 (Sunday)

The 19th century is slowly passing away

DIED TODAY

~ RIP Viscount Nabeshima Naoyoshi, 13th and final daimyo of the Kashima Domain, in Hizen Province in the north west corner of the island of Kyushu, in south west Japan.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabeshima_Naoyoshi

~ RIP Danish explorer Anders Christian Barclay Raunkiær, traveller to Riyadh and through eastern Arabia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barclay_Raunki%C3%A6r

~ RIP Amédée William Merlaud-Ponty, Governor General of French West Africa.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Merlaud-Ponty

17th February 1915 (Ash Wednesday)

Modern warfare is total, technological warfare

War from the air: German Zeppelin Z3 is brought down in Denmark and put permanently out of action by a storm. Also today, Zeppelin Z4 is taken out of service. Both aircraft have recently been involved in a raid on the coast of Norfolk, England,  late in January 1915.

http://www.thisdayinaviation.com/19-20-january-1915/

War underground: On Hill 60 on the Ypres salient of the Western Front, the newly formed “mining” unit of the British Royal Engineers explode their first “deep mine” under German trenches, but it is not enough to enable them to take control of the hill.

http://www.travelnotes.org/blog/2015/hill-60-cratered-landscape.htm#.VNuBBrCUf38

War under the sea: In Quincy, Massachusets, the US navy lays down the new keels of L-class submarines L-10 and L-11.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_L-10_%28SS-50%29

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_L-11_%28SS-51%29

War on every terrain: The British War Office experiments  today with an early form of tank based on a Holt tractor, but the caterpillar tracks become bogged down in the mud, and the project is abandoned, temporarily at least.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_tank

29th January, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Halfdan Rasmussen, poet, resistance fighter and human rights activist.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halfdan_Rasmussen

War!

Western Front: In the Argonne region of North East France, twenty three year old Lieutenant Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel earns an Iron Cross (his second) for leading his platoon in successful raids against French positions [Burg & Purcell].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel

9th December 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: In Copenhagen –  Max Manus, Norwegian-Danish migrant, ship-broker, seaman, adventurer, soldier, resistance fighter, escapee, wanderer, saboteur, guard to a Royal Family, recipient of Norwegian, English, Polish, American and Italian medals, and office machinery entrepreneur.

http://www.maxmanus.com/About-Max-Manus/Max-Manus

War!

The Middle East: After a six day skirmish (the “Battle of Qurna”) Anglo-Indian forces take the city of Qurna, at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, from the Ottoman occupiers, thereby securing the British advance into Mesopotamia (now Southern Iraq).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Qurna

Peace

Mining accidents: At the Scranton diamond mine in Pennsylvania, a lift carriage disintegrates and plunges several hundred feet into the shaft, killing 13 miners.

http://thomasgenweb.com/diamond_mine_1914_accident.html

 

28th August 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: At Waterloo, South Australia – Esmond Gerald ‘Tom’ Kruse, MBE for his services to the Royal Mail, and star of the award winning 1954 film: “Back of Beyond”.

http://sahistoryhub.com.au/people/tom-kruse

War!

In Louvain in Belgium, American, Swedish and Mexican diplomats visit the city  “after three days of barbarous havoc inflicted by German soldiers. They find smouldering buildings and streets strewn with dead horses, executed Belgians, and wreckage. The visitors are appalled.” [Burg and Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1”]

 At sea: In the first full naval battle of the war, British and German war ships engage at the Battle of Heliogoland Bight (off the German and Danish coasts). Around 750 – mainly German – sailors die, and the Germans lose six vessels, including a destroyer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Heligoland_Bight_(1914)

Peace:

In New Zealand, farmer and diarist George Adkin spends his evening reading the novel “Old St Paul’s” by William Harrison Ainsworth, set in the city of London at the time of the plague and the great fire.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/4741